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Research and Publication Ethics > For Authors and Reviewers > Research and Publication Ethics



1. Human Rights and Protection

1) IRB regulation: CHNR endorses and follows international standards of ethical practice in human rights and protection and the principles addressed in the Declaration of Helsinki (Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, https://www.wma.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/DoH-Oct2013-JAMA.pdf). According to the Bioethics and Biosafety Act of Korea and in order to meet international standards for ethical practice in human rights and protection, any research involving human subjects must be approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). The researcher(s) must also obtain written voluntary informed consent from the participants or their parent or legal guardian. If the research involves a child or any vulnerable subject in any way, special and sensitive protection is needed to ensure the safety and human rights of the subject. When necessary, the editor of CHNR may ask the author(s) to present the relevant document(s) on the human rights and protection issues related to the manuscript, such as the informed consent form or the evidence for the IRB approval of the study.

2) When animals are used as research subjects, the study must be conducted in correspondence with related regulations such as those of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), or National Institutes of Health (NIH) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Any treatment methods in conflict with the regulations must be described and may be grounds for rejection of the paper.

2. Authorship

The practices of CHNR regarding research and publication ethics strictly follow the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines (http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html), which state that authorship credit should be based on all of the following: substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND final approval of the version to be published; AND agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All other contributors should be credited in the acknowledgments. After the initial submission of a manuscript, any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or re-arranging the order of authors) must be explained in a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. Copyright assignment must also be completed by every author.
Corresponding author and first author: CHNR does not allow multiple corresponding authors for a single article. Only one author for each article should correspond with the editorial office and reviewers. CHNR does not allow multiple first authors for a single article.
Correction of authorship after publication: CHNR does not correct authorship after publication unless a mistake has been made by the editorial staff. Authorship may be after submission and before publication if an authorship correction is requested by all of the authors involved with the manuscript.

3. Submission Declaration

Duplicate publication or duplicate submission is prohibited. Manuscripts that have been published or are being submitted to other journal(s) should not be submitted to CHNR. Manuscripts that have been published or are currently under consideration for publication in CHNR must not be submitted to another journal. Upon notice of a duplicate submission, submission privileges to CHNR will be suspended for 2 years.

1) Decision criteria for duplicate publication: The manuscript has never been published in another language, or in any medium봯rint, electronic media, or an academic journal.

2) The corresponding author must obtain approval from the editor-in-chief of each of the related journals if s/he wishes to reprint the published manuscript in another language.

3) The editorial board will determine the nature and degree of duplicate publication or duplicate submission of the manuscript.

4. Copyright

1) After the acceptance of the manuscript, the author must submit the copyright transfer agreement to the Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing. All authors should print their names and sign the copyright transfer agreement.

2) All manuscripts published in Child Health Nursing Research are protected by copyright. The copyright and the transfer right of the digital content of the published paper and journal are owned by the Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing. All authors should agree to the copyright transfer during the submission process.

5. Data Sharing

This journal follows the data sharing policy described in 쏡ata Sharing Statements for Clinical Trials: A Requirement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2017.32.7.1051). As of July 1, 2018 manuscripts submitted to ICMJE journals that report the results of interventional clinical trials must contain a data sharing statement as described below. Clinical trials that begin enrolling participants on or after January 1, 2019 must include a data sharing plan in the trial's registration. The ICMJE's policy regarding trial registration is explained at https://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html. If the data sharing plan changes after registration this should be reflected in the statement submitted and published with the manuscript, and updated in the registry record. All of the authors of research articles that deal with interventional clinical trials must submit data sharing plan of example 1 to 4 in Table 1. Based on the degree of sharing plan, authors should deposit their data after deidentification and report the DOI of the data and the registered site.

Table 1. Examples of data sharing statements that fulfill the requirements of the International
Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

Element Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4
Will individual participant data be available (including data dictionaries)? Yes Yes Yes No
What data in particular will be shared? All individual participant data collected during the trial, after deidentification. Individual participant data that underlie the results reported in this article, after deidentification (text, tables, figures, and appendices). Individual participant data that underlie the results reported in this article, after deidentification (text, tables, figures, and appendices). Not available
What other documents will be available? Study protocol, statistical analysis plan, informed consent form, clinical study report, analytic code Study protocol, statistical analysis plan, analytic code Study protocol Not available
When will data be available (start and end dates)? Immediately following publication. No end date. Beginning at 3 months and ending at 5 years following the article publication. Beginning at 9 months and ending at 36 months following the article publication. Not applicable
With whom? Anyone who wishes to access the data. Researchers who provide a methodologically sound proposal. Investigators whose proposed use of the data has been approved by an independent review committee (쐋earned intermediary) identified for this purpose. Not applicable
For what types of analyses? Any purpose To achieve aims in the approved proposal. For individual participant data meta-analysis. Not applicable
By what mechanism will data be made available? Data are available indefinitely at (link to be included). Proposals should be directed to xxx@yyy. To gain access, data requestors will need to sign a data access agreement. Proposals may be submitted up to 36 months following article publication. After 36 months the data will be available in our University's data warehouse but without investigator support other than deposited metadata. Not applicable
Data are available for 5 years at a third-party website (link to be included). Information regarding submitting proposals and accessing data may be found at (link to be provided).

6. Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements

The publication and research ethics of CHNR strictly follow the ICMJE guidelines (http://www.icmje.org/).

1) Reporting standards: Authors should report on their work accurately and objectively without inappropriate manipulation. Authors should describe their methods and procedures in enough detail and present sufficient references so that others can replicate the work.
Authors should not produce, record, or report non-existent data and results, and should not change or omit data. Authors should also avoid producing multiple publications (쐓alami slicing) from content that should be only one substantial manuscript. Manuscripts that do not follow the international ethical standards of research and publication (i.e., those that involve fabrication, falsification, salami slicing, plagiarism, or simultaneous/duplicate submission) will not be considered for publication in CHNR. The editorial board will adjudicate the specific reasons for rejection.

2) Authorship of the manuscript: Authorship must be limited to those who have made a substantial contribution to the manuscript in terms of the conception and design, as well as the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data. All authors should be involved in drafting and revising the manuscript, and must approve the final version of the manuscript. The corresponding author should confirm that all appropriate persons are listed as authors in the manuscript, and all co-authors should approve the final version to be published.

3) Originality and plagiarism: Authors are required to submit original manuscripts, and confirm that they have cited or quoted others ideas and texts appropriately and accurately.
Plagiarism means the appropriation of another person셲 ideas, research processes, results, or text as one셲 own. This includes using previously published material of oneself or any other author without citing the reference. The editorial board of CHNR uses the CrossCheck tool to check for plagiarism. If plagiarism is discovered in the manuscript, the manuscript will not be published.

4) Multiple, simultaneous, or duplicate submission: Authors should not submit the same research to more than one journal and should not publish the manuscript in different languages. If authors wish to pursue a secondary publication of the manuscript in another language, they should obtain approval from the editor-in-chief of both related journals. The editorial board will determine the nature and degree of duplicate publication or duplicate submission for the manuscript.

5) Data access and retention: Authors should retain research data and be prepared to allow access to the data in case the editorial board asks them to provide the raw data in connection with editorial review.

6) Disclosure and conflict of interest: Authors are required to disclose commercial or similar relationships to products or companies mentioned in the article being submitted or related to its subject matter.

7) Acknowledgment of sources: Sources of funding for the manuscript should be acknowledged. Authors should use or report the information obtained privately with explicit, written permission from sources.

8) Fundamental errors in a manuscript: When authors find a fundamental error in a published manuscript, they should immediately inform the editor and cooperate with the editor to correct or withdraw the manuscript.

9) Process for managing publication malpractice: When reviewers or readers suspect publication malpractice such as fabrication, falsification, salami slicing, plagiarism, or simultaneous/duplicate publication; inappropriate changes in authorship, an undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author셲 idea or data, complaints against editors, and so on, the process of resolution will be initiated following the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
(http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The ethics committee will discuss and adjudicate cases of suspected publication malpractice, as well as complaints and appeals against editors. CHNR will not hesitate to publish errata, corrigenda, clarifications, retractions, apologies, and expressions of concern when needed.
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