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Research and Publication Ethics > For Authors and Reviewers > Research and Publication Ethics

Research Ethics

1) Statements of Human and Animal Rights and Protection: CHNR endorses and follows international standards of ethical practice in human rights and protection and the principles addressed in the Declaration of Helsinki (Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, https://www.wma.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/DoH-Oct2013-JAMA.pdf). According to the Bioethics and Biosafety Act of Korea and in order to meet international standards for ethical practice in human rights and protection, any research involving human subjects must be approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). When animals are used as research subjects, the study must be conducted in correspondence with related regulations, such as those of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs, https://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/ncstate/iacuc.htm), or National Institutes of Health (NIH) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/guide-for-the-care-and-use-of-laboratory-animals.pdf). Any treatment methods in conflict with the regulations must be described and may be grounds for rejection of the paper.

2) Statements of Informed Consent: The researcher(s) must also obtain written voluntary informed consent from the participants or their parents or legal guardian. If the research involves a child or any vulnerable subject in any way, special and sensitive protection is needed to ensure the safety and human rights of the subject. When necessary, the editor of CHNR may ask the author(s) to present the relevant document(s) on the human rights and protection issues related to the manuscript, such as the informed consent form or the evidence for the IRB approval of the study.

2. Submission declaration and verification

Duplicate publication or duplicate submission is prohibited in accordance with the ICMJE recommendations (https://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts/redundant-duplicate-publication-published-article). Manuscripts that have been published or are being submitted to other journal(s) should not be submitted to CHNR. Manuscripts that have been published or are currently under consideration for publication in CHNR must not be submitted to another journal. Upon notice of a duplicate submission, submission privileges to CHNR will be suspended for 2 years.

1) Decision criteria for duplicate publication
The manuscript has never been published in another language or any medium봯rint, electronic media, or an academic journal.

2) The corresponding author must obtain approval from the editor-in-chief of each related journal if she or he wishes to reprint the published manuscript in another language.

3) The editorial board will determine the nature and degree of the manuscript's duplicate publication or duplicate submission.

3. Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements

The publication and research ethics of CHNR strictly follow the ICMJE guidelines (http://www.icmje.org/).

1) Reporting standards:
Authors should report on their work accurately and objectively without inappropriate manipulation. Authors should describe their methods and procedures in enough detail and present sufficient references so that others can replicate the work. Authors should not produce, record, or report non-existent data and results and should not change or omit data. Authors should also avoid producing multiple publications ("salami slicing") from content that should be only one substantial manuscript. Manuscripts that do not follow the international ethical standards of research and publication (i.e., those that involve fabrication, falsification, salami slicing, plagiarism, or simultaneous/duplicate submission) will not be considered for publication in CHNR. The editorial board will adjudicate the specific reasons for rejection.

2) Authorship of the manuscript:
Authorship must be limited to those who have made a substantial contribution to the manuscript in terms of conception and design, as well as the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data. All authors should be involved in drafting and revising the manuscript and must approve the final version of the manuscript. The corresponding author should confirm that all appropriate persons are listed as authors in the manuscript, and all co-authors should approve the final version to be published.

3) Originality and plagiarism:
Authors are required to submit original manuscripts and confirm that they have cited or quoted others' ideas and texts appropriately and accurately. Plagiarism means the appropriation of another person's ideas, research processes, results, or text as one's This includes using previously published material of oneself or any other author without citing the references. The editorial board of CHNR uses the Crossref Similarity Check tool to check for plagiarism. If plagiarism is discovered in the manuscript, the manuscript will not be published.

4) Multiple, simultaneous, or duplicate submission:
Authors should not submit the same research to more than one journal and should not publish the manuscript in different languages. If authors wish to pursue a secondary publication of the manuscript in another language, they should obtain approval from the editor-in-chief of both related journals. The editorial board will determine the nature and degree of duplicate publication or duplicate submission for the manuscript.

5) Data access and retention:
Authors should retain research data and be prepared to allow access to the data in case the editorial board asks them to provide the raw data in connection with the editorial review.

6) Disclosure and conflict of interest:
Authors are required to disclose commercial or similar relationships to products or companies mentioned in the article being submitted or related to its subject matter.

7) Acknowledgment of sources:
Sources of funding for the manuscript should be acknowledged. Authors should use or report the information obtained privately with explicit, written permission from sources.

8) Fundamental errors in a manuscript:
When authors find a fundamental error in a published manuscript, they should immediately inform the editor and cooperate with the editor to correct or withdraw the manuscript.

9) Process for managing publication malpractice:
When reviewers or readers suspect publication malpractice such as fabrication, falsification, salami slicing, plagiarism, or simultaneous/duplicate publication; inappropriate changes in authorship, an undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author's idea or data, complaints against editors, and so on, the process of resolution will be initiated following the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The ethics committee will discuss and adjudicate cases of suspected publication malpractice, as well as complaints and appeals against editors. CHNR will not hesitate to publish errata, corrigenda, clarifications, retractions, apologies, and expressions of concern when needed.

4. Conflict of Interest

An article's corresponding author is required to notify the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that might have affected the study's findings or the way the data were interpreted. Even when the authors are certain that their respective judgments were unaffected when producing the article, a potential conflict of interest should be stated on the title page and at the conclusion of the main text. Conflicts of interest can include ties to pharmaceutical corporations on a personal or financial level, political pressure from special interest organizations, or issues in the classroom. The ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest (https://www.icmje.org/disclosure-of-interest/) should be used as the model for the disclosure form. The editor will determine whether the conflict of interest disclosure should be made in the final version of the work. All funding sources for a study should be specifically identified. Before assessing a particular paper, CHNR requests that referees notify the editor if they have any conflicts of interest. All article submissions from editors, staff members, or editorial board members are handled in the same manner as unsolicited submissions. They will not participate in the decision-making or reviewer selection process. Even for commissioned manuscripts, editors will not handle their own work.

5. Authorship

The practices of CHNR regarding research and publication ethics strictly follow the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines (http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html), and the Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals 4th Edition (ISMPP, 2022, https://www.ismpp.org/gpp-2022).st submit data sharing plan of example 1 to 4 in Table 1. Based on the degree of sharing plan, authors should deposit their data after deidentification and report the DOI of the data and the registered site.

1) Authorship credit
All other contributors should be credited in the acknowledgments. After the initial submission of a manuscript, any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author[s], deleting author[s], or re-arranging the order of authors) must be explained in a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. All authors of the paper must sign this letter. Every author must also complete a copyright assignment.

2) Authorship Taxonomy
The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the descriptions are accurate and agreed upon by all authors. The role(s) of all authors should be listed, using the above relevant categories. Authors may have contributed in multiple roles. CRediT in no way changes the journal's criteria to qualify for authorship. Please select the CRediT (https://credit.niso.org/) statements provided below during the submission process. This information will appear above references section of the published paper, as shown below as an example.

Table 1. Authorship Taxonomy(https://credit.niso.org/)

Term Definition
Conceptualization Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims
Methodology Development or design of methodology; creation of models
Software Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components
Validation Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/ reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs
Formal analysis Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data
Investigation Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection
Resources Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools
Data Curation Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse
Writing Original Draft Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation)
Writing Review & Editing Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary, or revision including pre-or post-publication stages
Visualization Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/ data presentation
Supervision Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team
Project administration Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution
Funding acquisition Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication

3) Corresponding author and first author:
CHNR does not allow multiple corresponding authors for a single article. Only one author for each article should correspond with the editorial office and reviewers. CHNR does not allow multiple first authors for a single article.

4) Correction of authorship after publication:
publication:혻CHNR does not correct authorship after publication unless the editorial staff has made a mistake. Authorship may be corrected after submission and before publication if all authors involved with the manuscript request an authorship correction.

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