Advances in neonatal care system and research have resulted in an increased survival rate among low birth weight infants in the industrialized countries. Recent Korean neonatal mortality and morbidity statistics, and current status of Korean neonatal intensive care facilities were reviewed here for the sake of future improvement and research.Morbidity statistics revealed that perinatal diseases accounted for 80% of the death of premature infants implying the possibility of its reduction by the vigorous prenatal care service in future. On the basis of extensive studies of nutritional support and growth rate of premature infants, commercial formulas for premature infants have been developed and various aspects of feeding techniques are standardized. However, problem of growth deficit of premature infants remains unsolved as medical problem. NICU specialists are challenged with the tasks of prenatal education or provision of care that minimizes the neurodevelopmental problems seen in preterm infants, various short-term outcome researches have been reported and those are reviewed here to promote research interest in the field of neonatal nursing. Systemic long-term outcome studies are also awaited in Korea for the formulation of welfare policy in future. Nursing science has to embrace all these interdisciplinary studies as their own research field in collaboration with neonatologist, nutritionist, rehabilitation therapist, social workers and teachers.