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Korean Journal of Child Health Nursing 1998;4(1):60-75.
A Study on the Perceived Stress of Mothers in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
Sung Hee Choi
Abstract
The parents have much expectation upon the pregnancy and child birth, and in most cases, they expect the healthy parturient child. However, we can be placed on the high-risk conditions which have the physical, social and immature infant, due to the unexpected results, among the new-born. Accordingly, these high-risk newborn and premature infants will be mostly in NICU, which the concentrated medical treatment can be given, upon their conditions. After their birth and during these periods, they will be divided from the parents, and the nurse will accomplish the bringing-up activities which they can take care of the infant, expected by the parents after their birth. The hospitalization of high-risk newborn including these premature infants is the shocking experience to the parents of family, and thus they can feel the fear and uneasiness, and these reactions of parents are troubled in the behavior at the usual days, and cause the disorder and spiritless status, and these results break the supporting ability of parents, and cause the obstruction. Also, the unavoidable division between the parents and the children as like hospitalization of children can make the parents to feel the alienation emotionally, and this causes the results which the pride on the bringing-up ability of baby gets to be lost. These problems can cause the difficulties on the bonding or the parenting in the further days, and can be related to the neglect and abuse of children. Also, it is gradually increased to study and report which the emotional division by the physical division between the mother and the baby obstructs the normal affection course between the parent and the infant. The stress caused by the birth and the hospitalization of high-risk newborn, as like this, is important in the points which it can uncertainly affect the potential energy for the relationship of parent-child who are finally healthy. Accordingly, the significance and purpose of this study are to understand the contents and degree of stress which the parents of high-risk newborn including the immature child can be experienced from the hospitalization of ICU for their new borns, and thus to offer the basic program to the nursing intervention program for these. The subject of this study is the mother of newborn in NICU of 10 General Hospitals located at the zone of Pusan, Korea from September 1997 to October 1997, and thus makes the subject of 95 person of parents who agreed to take part in the study and it is descriptive study related to the stress of mother having the newborn in NICU. The method is based on the preceding study related to the stress of mother having the experience of child hospitalization and chronic disease child, and then acquires the advice of specialists group as like 5 nursing professors, and then is amended and supplemented. Total number of questions in 43 items and consists of 5 factors as like medical treatment&nursing procedures, disease status&prognosis, role of parents, communication&inter-personal relationships, hospital environment, and is 5 point Likert Scale. The reliability of this study method is very highly shown to be Cronbach alpha=0.95. The collected data is analysed as Average, Frequency, Standard Deviation, T-test, ANOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Duncan multiful-range test by use of SPSS/PC (V7.5). The results of this study is summarized as under : 1. Every characteristics of subject is which the party of mother is 28.70age(+/-7.48) in the average ages, 51% in the high-school graduate, 38.5% in the christianity, total monthly income is 212.55 thousand won(+/-1.971), 74.5% in the housewife, 72.9% in the parents and children together living and the number of children to be 1.48 person(+/-0.6) in average, the recognition on the prognosis of baby is 74.0% in "Don't know", the relationship with the husband after the hospitalization of baby is 37.3% in "More Intimate", the relationship with the family of husband to be 48% in "No-change", and the degree which is consulted with the husband about the baby is 55% in "very frequently" and the visiting number per week is 4.59(+/-1.63) in average and the accompanying person in the time of visiting is which is which the number of husband is 56.3% and thus is the highest. The characteristics of baby is which the age is 21. 88days(+/-16.47) after the birth in average, the sex to be 50 person in the female 52.1% and the order of birth to be 54.2% in the first child, and the weight in the birth to be 2770gm(+/-610) and the height in the birth to be 46.26cm(+/-7.62) in average. The medical diagnosis is 37.5% in the premature infant, the career of hospitalization is 96.9% in "None", and the operation plan is 90.6% in "None" and the execution of operation is 88% in "None" and the nursing of incubator is 55.2% in "Yes", and the method of feeding is 50.5% in "Oral" and the contents of feeding is 46.9% in the "Milk". 2. The total stress degree of subject is almost highly shown to be as 3.36(+/-0.86). If it is compared upon each cause, 'stress on disease status&prognosis' is highest 3.79(+/-1.28), and it is in the order of 'stress on medical treatment&nursing procedures' 3.70(+/--.93), 'stress on hospital environment' 3.14(+/-0.86), 'stress on role of parents' 3.18(+/-0.92) and 'stress on communication&inter personal relationship' 2.62(+/-0.77). 3. As the results of checking the notworthiness of stress degree upon each variable of subject, the variable showing the noted difference was the birth weight)gamma=-0.16, P=0.04), birth height(gamma=-0.23, P=0.03), nursing in the incubator(F=8.93, P=0.04), feed method(F=2.94, P=0.04). That is to say, it is shown which the smaller the birth weight is, the higher the stress degree of mother is noteworthily. Also, the smaller the birth weight is, the higher the stress degree of mother is noteworthily. Also, the smaller the birth height baby is, the higher the stress of mother is. In the incubator, it is shown which the mother whose baby is nursing in the incubator is higher in the stress degree than other mothers. Upon the feeding method of baby, that is to say, TPN is the highest, and it is shown in the order of NPO, Tube feeding, and P.O. feeding. When we review the above-mentioned results, as the status is serious, it is thought which we include the supporting nursing for coping with the stress of parents in the setting-up od nursing plan for the baby in the NICU.
Key words: Stress
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